Kellner, Douglas. Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture. P. 9 -20
• The media affects all the different members of society through limited use of production and political economy, textual analysis, and audience reception and the use of media culture. (pg. 9)
• Individuals can interpret media by accepting the dominant views portrayed or by resisting those views and creating their own identities and interpretations. (pg. 10)
• The production and political economy aspect studies the well-defined rules within the ideological boundaries that different media codes must follow, such as sequelism and the cycle of genres. It also focuses on how the capitalistic views held by the corporate conglomerates that produce the media are depicted in the media. (pg 12-13)
• The textual analysis aspect focuses on the semiotics of the nonverbal codes presented by the media. It looks at how cultural meanings convey specific ideologies and how they fit in systems. (pg 14)
• The audience reception and use of media culture aspect focuses on how different audiences read texts and react to media in different ways. In recent years, however, these reception studies have had downfalls, in their likelihood to either downplay or exaggerate class distinctions in lieu of gender and ethnicity and their tendency to romanticize the "active audience." (pg 17).
• These studies need to incorporate all of the different aspects in order to dissect the meanings, messages and effects of the dominant cultural forms to resist media manipulation and increase freedom and individuality. (pg 19)
• A multiperspectival approach with adapted cultural studies needs to be used to address the power of the media. (pg. 17)